## Main.ConditionalStatements History

April 30, 2021, at 11:49 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 61 from:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,s_1,s_2,x,y} \quad y&\\x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,s_1,s_2,x,y} \quad y&\\s.t. \quad x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:49 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 61 from:
{\begin{align}\begin{align}\min_{b,s_1,s_2,x,y} \quad y&\\x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,s_1,s_2,x,y} \quad y&\\x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:48 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 61 from:
{\begin{align}x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\begin{align}\min_{b,s_1,s_2,x,y} \quad y&\\x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:47 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 46 from:
This form is difficult for a gradient-based optimizer because the equations ''y==-x'' or ''y==2*x'' have a switching point at zero. The gradient-based solvers are not designed for problems with non-continuous first or second derivatives. The Jacobian (1st derivatives) and Hessian (2nd derivatives) are gradients of the equations and Lagrangian function. Solvers need these to be continuous to efficiently find a solution.
to:
This form is difficult for a gradient-based optimizer because the transition between the equations ''y=-x'' / ''y=2*x'' is a switching point at zero. The gradient-based solvers are not designed for problems with non-continuous first or second derivatives. The Jacobian (1st derivatives) and Hessian (2nd derivatives) are gradients of the equations and Lagrangian function. Solvers need these to be continuous to efficiently find a solution.
April 30, 2021, at 11:43 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 59 from:
The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC).
to:
The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC). The additional variables are two slack variables {s_1} and {s_2} and a switching variable {b}.
April 30, 2021, at 11:42 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 61 from:
{\begin{align}x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1,s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1&\ge0 \\ s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:41 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 61 from:
{\begin{align}x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1,s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)}
to:
{\begin{align}x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1,s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:41 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed lines 59-60 from:
The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC). The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using binary variables.
to:
The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC).

{\begin{align}x&=s_1 - s_2 \\ s_1,s_2&\ge0 \\ s_1 s_2&\le0 \\ 0&=s_1\left(1-b\right)+s_2\left(b\right) \\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)}

The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using integer
variables.
Changed line 75 from:
This form sometimes has issues if the solution is at the switching condition because it is a saddle point. Also, the complementary condition objective may compete with other problem objectives. This can cause the solver to fail to find a solution or report a successful solution when the conditions are not met.
to:
This form sometimes has issues if the solution is at the switching condition because it is a saddle point. This can cause the solver to fail to find a solution or report a successful solution when the conditions are not met.
April 30, 2021, at 11:30 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed lines 59-64 from:
The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC).

The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using binary variables.
to:
The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC). The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using binary variables.
Added lines 101-104:

!!!! Reference

* Powell, K. M., Eaton, A. N., Hedengren, J. D., Edgar, T. F., A Continuous Formulation for Logical Decisions in Differential Algebraic Systems using Mathematical Programs of Complementarity Constraints, Processes, 2016, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/pr4010007. [[http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9717/4/1/7|Article]]
April 30, 2021, at 11:28 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 77 from:
'''if3 (MPCC) Function'''
to:
'''if3 (Binary Variable) Function'''
April 30, 2021, at 11:11 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 81 from:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} \quad y& \\ \mathrm{s.t.} 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} \quad y& \\ \mathrm{s.t.} \quad 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:11 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 81 from:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} \quad &y \\ 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} \quad y& \\ \mathrm{s.t.} 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:10 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 81 from:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} &y \\ 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} \quad &y \\ 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:09 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 81 from:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} &y\\(1-b) x &\le 0\\b (-x) &\le 0\\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} &y \\ 0 &\ge(1-b) x \\ 0 &\ge b (-x) \\ y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:08 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 81 from:
{\begin{align}$\min_{b,x,y} &y\\(1-b) x &\le 0\\b (-x) &\le 0\\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)$}
to:
{\begin{align}\min_{b,x,y} &y\\(1-b) x &\le 0\\b (-x) &\le 0\\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)\end{align}}
April 30, 2021, at 11:07 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed lines 81-87 from:
{$\min_{b,x,y} y$}

{$(1-b) x \le 0$}

{$b (-x) \le 0$}

{$y=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)$}
to:
{\begin{align}$\min_{b,x,y} &y\\(1-b) x &\le 0\\b (-x) &\le 0\\y&=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)$}
April 30, 2021, at 11:06 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed lines 81-87 from:
$\min_{b,x,y} y$

$(1-b) x \le 0$

$b (-x) \le 0$

$y=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)$
to:
{$\min_{b,x,y} y$}

{
$(1-b) x \le 0$}

{
$b (-x) \le 0$}

{
$y=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)$}
April 30, 2021, at 11:05 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Deleted lines 51-54:
'''if2 (MPCC) Function'''

The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC). The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using binary variables.

Changed lines 53-59 from:
from gekko import GEKKO
m = GEKKO()
x = m.Var()
y = m.if2(
x,-x,2*x)
m.Minimize(y)
m.solve()
print(x.value,y.value
)
to:
y = m.if2(x,x<0,x>=0)
y =
m.if3(x,x<0,x>=0)
Changed lines 57-62 from:
This form sometimes has issues if the solution is at the switching condition because it is a saddle point. Also, the complementary condition objective may compete with other problem objectives. This can cause the solver to fail to find a solution or report a successful solution when the conditions are not met.

'''if3 (MPCC) Function'''

Another method is to use a binary switching variable with a Mixed Integer programming solver such as APOPT (''m.options.SOLVER=1'').
to:
'''if2 (MPCC) Function'''

The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC).

The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using binary variables.

(:source lang=python:)
from gekko import GEKKO
m = GEKKO()
x = m.Var()
y = m.if2(x,-x,2*x)
m.Minimize(y)
m.solve()
print(x.value,y.value)
(:sourceend:)

This form sometimes has issues if the solution is at the switching condition because it is a saddle point. Also, the complementary condition objective may compete with other problem objectives. This can cause the solver to fail to find a solution or report a successful solution when the conditions are not met.

'''if3 (MPCC) Function'''

An alternative method is a binary switching variable (''b'') with the ''if3'' function in Gekko.

$\min_{b,x,y} y$

$(1-b) x \le 0$

$b (-x) \le 0$

$y=(1-b)(-x) + b(2x)$

Gekko automates the creation of the additional equations and binary variable with the function call. The problem is solved with a Mixed Integer programming solver such as APOPT (''m.options.SOLVER=1'').
April 30, 2021, at 10:37 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Changed line 1 from:
(:title Conditional Statements with Gradient-Based Optimizers:)
to:
(:title Optimize with Conditional Statements:)
April 30, 2021, at 10:36 PM by 10.35.117.248 -
Added lines 1-91:
(:title Conditional Statements with Gradient-Based Optimizers:)
(:keywords MPCC, integer, MINLP, MILP, switch, conditional, if then:)
(:description Conditional statements require special treatment to be used in gradient-based optimization. Two popular methods are with binary (0 or 1) switching variables or Mathematical Programs with Complementarity Constraints (MPCCs):)

Conditional statements (IF ELSE) require special treatment to be used in gradient-based optimization. Two popular methods are Mathematical Programs with Complementarity Constraints (MPCCs) and binary (0 or 1) switching variables. Consider the simple example where the variable ''y'' is minimumized by changing the value of ''x''.

%width=550px%Attach:conditional_optimization.png

(:toggle hide plt_src button show='Plot Source':)
(:div id=plt_src:)
(:source lang=python:)
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

x1 = np.linspace(-1,0)
x2 = np.linspace(0,1)
y1 = -x1
y2 = 2*x2

plt.figure(figsize=(8,3))
plt.plot(x1,y1,'r:',lw=3,label='y=-x')
plt.plot(x2,y2,'b-',lw=3,label='y=2x')
plt.plot([0],[0],'o',color='orange',markersize=10,label='Optimal')
plt.grid(); plt.legend()
plt.savefig('conditional.png',dpi=600)
plt.show()
(:sourceend:)
(:divend:)

'''Incorrect'''

A common error with conditional statements is to express the condition as a typical ''if, else'' construct in Python.

(:source lang=python:)
from gekko import GEKKO
m = GEKKO()
x,y = m.Array(m.Var,2)
if x<=0:
y = -1.0 * x
else:
y =  2.0 * x
m.Minimize(y)
m.solve()
(:sourceend:)

This form is difficult for a gradient-based optimizer because the equations ''y==-x'' or ''y==2*x'' have a switching point at zero. The gradient-based solvers are not designed for problems with non-continuous first or second derivatives. The Jacobian (1st derivatives) and Hessian (2nd derivatives) are gradients of the equations and Lagrangian function. Solvers need these to be continuous to efficiently find a solution.

'''Gekko Functions for Conditional Statements'''

There are at two methods in Gekko to provide continuous gradients for the solvers.

'''if2 (MPCC) Function'''

The ''if2'' function uses a Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraint (MPCC). The gradients are continuous and the complementarity constraint is an efficient way to solve the problem without using binary variables.

(:source lang=python:)
from gekko import GEKKO
m = GEKKO()
x = m.Var()
y = m.if2(x,-x,2*x)
m.Minimize(y)
m.solve()
print(x.value,y.value)
(:sourceend:)

This form sometimes has issues if the solution is at the switching condition because it is a saddle point. Also, the complementary condition objective may compete with other problem objectives. This can cause the solver to fail to find a solution or report a successful solution when the conditions are not met.

'''if3 (MPCC) Function'''

Another method is to use a binary switching variable with a Mixed Integer programming solver such as APOPT (''m.options.SOLVER=1'').

(:source lang=python:)
from gekko import GEKKO
m = GEKKO()
x = m.Var()
y = m.if3(x,-x,2*x)
m.Minimize(y)
m.options.SOLVER = 1
m.solve()
print(x.value,y.value)
(:sourceend:)

Binary (0 or 1) variables are frequently used in optimization. Examples of binary variables include On/Off state or True/False as a 1 or 0 binary value. [[Main/IntegerProgramming|Integer Programming]] is a type of optimization problem where the variables are restricted to discrete whole number values such as 0/1 binary values. A Mixed-Integer Programming problem is when some of the variables are continuous and some are discrete. Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) also includes nonlinear equations and requires specialized MINLP solvers. At first glance it might seem solving a binary variable problem would be easier than a continuous problem. This is not the case, however, because it is challenging to explore all the different combinations that occurs in all but the smallest problems. For example if 30 variables can each take 2 values, there are 2^30 (>1 billion) possibilities. Even with the fastest computer, it may take a long time to evaluate all of these combinations. There are numerical solvers in Gekko such as [[https://apopt.com|APOPT]] that use branch and bound to efficiently solve problems with binary, integer, or discrete variables.

!!!! Additional Resources

* [[http://apmonitor.com/me575/index.php/Main/LogicalConditions|Logical Conditions in Optimization]]
* [[https://apmonitor.com/do/index.php/Main/DiscreteVariables|Dynamic Optimization with Discrete Variables]]
* [[https://apmonitor.com/me575/index.php/Main/DiscreteOptimization|Discrete Optimization]]
* [[https://apmonitor.com/pdc/index.php/Main/LinearProgramming|Linear Programming]]
* [[Main/IntegerProgramming|Integer Linear Programming (ILP)]]